Q&A (Fatwa)

#1032: On How Allah’s Rahmah Should Be Understood

Asalamuh alaykum ya Shaykh! It is narrated in Sahih bukhari that Salman al-Farisi reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Verily, on the day Allah created the heavens and earth, he created one hundred parts of mercy. Each part can fill what is between the heaven and earth. He made one part of mercy for the earth, from it a mother has compassion for her child, animals and birds have compassion for each other. On the Day of Resurrection, he will perfect this mercy.” can we say Allaah’s mercy was created and also affirm the attribute to Him because of the Hadith? Or is not understood as such?

ANSWER:

Alhamdulillahi!

The Hadīth you refer to was reported from Abī ‘Uthmān from Salmān who said: the Rasūl Salallāhu’alayhi wasallam said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَلَقَ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ مِائَةَ رَحْمَةٍ كُلُّ رَحْمَةٍ طِبَاقَ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ فَجَعَلَ مِنْهَا فِي الأَرْضِ رَحْمَةً فَبِهَا تَعْطِفُ الْوَالِدَةُ عَلَى وَلَدِهَا وَالْوَحْشُ وَالطَّيْرُ بَعْضُهَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ فَإِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَامَةِ أَكْمَلَهَا بِهَذِهِ الرَّحْمَةِ

Verily, Allah created, on the same very day when He created the heavens and the earth, one hundred parts of mercy. Every part of mercy is coextensive with the space between the heavens and the earth and He out of this mercy endowed one part to the earth and it is because of this that the mother shows affection to her child and even the beasts and birds show kindness to one another and when there would be the Day of Resurrection, Allah would make full (use of Mercy).

Transmitted by Imām Muslim 2753, 2752.

A similar Hadīth was also reported from Sahī’d Al-Maqburiyy from Abū Hurairah Radiyallāhu anhu who said: I heard the Rasūl Salallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam saying:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَلَقَ الرَّحْمَةَ يَوْمَ خَلَقَهَا مِائَةَ رَحْمَةٍ، فَأَمْسَكَ عِنْدَهُ تِسْعًا وَتِسْعِينَ رَحْمَةً، وَأَرْسَلَ فِي خَلْقِهِ كُلِّهِمْ رَحْمَةً وَاحِدَةً، فَلَوْ يَعْلَمُ الْكَافِرُ بِكُلِّ الَّذِي عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ لَمْ يَيْأَسْ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَلَوْ يَعْلَمُ الْمُؤْمِنُ بِكُلِّ الَّذِي عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ لَمْ يَأْمَنْ مِنَ النَّارِ.

Verily Allah created Mercy the day He created it, He made it into one hundred parts. He withheld with Him ninety-nine parts, and sent its one part to all His creatures. Had the non-believer known of all the Mercy which is in the Hands of Allah, he would not lose hope of entering Paradise, and had the believer known of all the punishment which is present with Allah, he would not consider himself safe from the Hell-Fire.”

Transmitted by Imām Al-Bukhārī#6469, #6000.

Know that, amongst the attributes of Allāh Ta’āla is Mercy. Likewise, the creations are attributed with the sifah. However, the Rahmah of Allāh Ta’āla can never be compared to that of His creation the way the misguided sects claim, Glory be to Him and exalted be He in high exaltation above what they say.

Ibn Al-Jawzī said:

The Rahmah of Allāh (Ta’āla) is an attribute amongst the attributes of His Zāt, and is not the same as the meaning of tenderness that’s of the attributes of the mankind. Rather, Allāh sets forth a parable to what is understood of the Rahmah of the creations, and the aim is to connote that He is the most merciful of the merciful ones.

Fat’hul Bārī.

Hence, the sifāt of Allāh Ta’āla can never be compared to His creations.

That said. Also know that, the word Ar-rahma that’s made related to the Name of Allāh Ta’āla is of two kinds: that which is not created which is made related to the Name of Allāh Ta’āla as a form of attribute to its mawsūf (the word being described) and this is the attribute of Allāh Ta’āla.

Allāh Ta’āla says:

الرحمان.

The Beneficient.

And the second kind which is created. It is made related to the Name of Allāh as a form of maf’ūl (object) to its fā’il (doer) and the Hadīth you refer to falls under this category.

Ibn Qayyim said:

Know verily that, Ar-rahmah that is made related to the name of Allāh Ta’āla is of two kinds: one of it is made related to His Name (Allāh Ta’āla) in form of muf’ūl (object) to its fā’il (doer) and the second is made related to His Name in form of attribute to its mawsūf (the word that’s being described.)

Refr: Badāi’il Fawāid.(2/pg 676).

He also said:

This Rahmah (in this Hadīth) is created which is related to the name of Allāh Ta’āla, a relation of the creature with Rahmah to the creator (Allāh Ta’āla), and He named it as Rahmah because it was created with Rahmah for Rahmah, and it was made specific to the people of Rahmah, and the people involve are the Ruhamāh.

Badāi’il Fawāid.

In Summary, the word (Ar-rahmah) is amongst the attributes of Allāh Ta’āla when made related to His Name in form of attribute to its mawsūf (the word that’s being described), and when it is made related to the Name of Allāh Ta’āla as a form of maf’ūl (object) to its fā’il (doer), then we can say in this case, Allāh’s Mercy is created.

Allāhu A’alām

Bārakallāhu Fīkum
Jazākumullāhu khayran.

Abū Yahya

15th Shawwal, 1441AH

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