Q&A (Fatwa)

#352: On the Kaffāra of Fast of a Pregnant Woman

 

” Assalamu alaikum if a pregnant woman can’t fast what shld she do b4 d next ramadan is she to repay or what”

ANSWER

Alhamdulillaah wa as-salaatu Wa Assalaamu ala rasulillaah.

Know, may Allah be merciful upon us all, that it is not permissible for the pregnant woman or the breast feeding woman to not observe the fast in Ramadaan unless if she fears for her health or the health of her baby.

If then the advice of a doctor or experience or her fear is confirmed, it becomes permissible for her to terminate the fast and to refrain from fasting.

When she does, the Ulamaa have differed slightly on the order with which she should compensate for the missed fasts.

It is authentically narrated from Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar – radiyallaahu anhum – that what she must do is to feed in liu and not to expiate by observing the fast for the missed days.

Ibn Abbas – radiyallaahu anhu – particularly held that the pregnant woman and the breastfeeding mother are the ones implied in the verse where Allaah – ta’aala – said:

: ﻭَﻋَﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟَّﺬِﻳﻦَ ﻳُﻄِﻴﻘُﻮﻧَﻪُ ﻓِﺪْﻳَﺔٌ ﻃَﻌَﺎﻡُ ﻣِﺴْﻜِﻴﻦٍ } ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ : {184 ،

“And it is obligatory upon those who are capable to expiate by feeding the Miskin.” Baqara 184

And her similitude is the sick one whose cure is not expected in the meantime.

However, the verdict of the four Imaams of the Madhaahib is that she has to attempt compensating for the missed days by fasting. And then to resort to feeding if and when she is incapable. Their evidence is the verse where Allah said:

ﺃَﻳَّﺎﻣًﺎ ﻣَﻌْﺪُﻭﺩَﺍﺕٍ ﻓَﻤَﻦْ ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﻣِﻨْﻜُﻢْ ﻣَﺮِﻳﻀًﺎ ﺃَﻭْ ﻋَﻠَﻰ ﺳَﻔَﺮٍ ﻓَﻌِﺪَّﺓٌ ﻣِﻦْ ﺃَﻳَّﺎﻡٍ ﺃُﺧَﺮَ } ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ : 184

“A numbered number of days. Thus whosoever of you that is ill or on a journey should expiate (for it by fasting) of other days.”

They explained that since her situation is temporary, she should be treated like the one who is ill.

As for the feeding, the measure is a Mudd according to Imaam Maalik, Abu Hanifah and Ash-Shaafi’I and half of a Sa’ according to Imaam Ahmad.
A Sa’ is four Mudd. The evidence here supports the Maliki and Shafi’i position.

The feeding should best be given off in the month of the fast (Ramadaan) by feeding the miskin (the needy) at the time of Iftaar. If that is missed then it can be done outside the month.

Some of the Ulamaa in the Shaafi’i and Hanbali schools hold that what is obligatory is to feed in the month and then fast outside it. This verdict is weak.

The sound verdict is that mentioned by the four Imams.

Allāhu A’alam

Bārakallāhu Fīkum
Jazākumullāhu Khayran

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