Commentary on the Last Chapter in the Book Al-Murshidu Al-Mu’īn 10

Authored by: Polymath Imām Abū Muhammad Abdulwāhid Ibn 'Āshir Al-Mālikī rahimahullāh


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على المبعوث رحمة للعالمين وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين ومن تبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين وبعد

Assalāmu Alaykum Warahmatullāh Wabarakātuh

Dear Brothers and  Sisters on the Platform

You are all welcome to this morning’s session of the Halqah where we shall continue from where we stopped in our Commentary on the Book Al-Murshid Al-Mu’īn which was written by the Imām Ibn ‘Āshir Al-Mālikī rahimahullāh

We stopped at where the Imām rahimahullāh said

يُحَاسِبُ النَّفْسَ عَلَى الأَنْفَاسِ                 وَيَزِنُ الْخَاطِرَ بِالْقِسْطَاطِ

“He takes himself to account per breathe; And weighs his thoughts with the Scales”

And we explained it’s meanings

We continue by saying, the Imām said rahimahullāh

وَيَحْفَظُ الْمَفْرُوضَ رَأْسَ الْمَالِ                  وَالنَّفْلُ رِبْحُهُ بِهِ يُوَالِي

“He Safeguards the Obligatory which is the Capital; And Follows them with the Superegatory as the profit”

In this line, the Imām made emphasis on a very important Precept that must be understood by the Seeker of Allāh’s Pleasure

That the Obligatory Acts are the most beloving to Allāh and the ones that must be given the utmost priority. They are to the Believer like the Capital is to an entrepreneur. There is no Enterprise without the Capital. You don’t chase after the Profit at the expense of the Capital

In like manner, the Believer must not go after the Superegatory ‘Ibādah at the expense of the Obligatory Acts

In reality, Allāh ordained the Obligatory Acts and made the Superegatory Acts as means of preserving the Obligatory Acts. The below then are the lined items that must be understood here

One, the Obligatory Ibādah are the most important and the most rewarding

In the Hadīth recorded by Imām Al-Bukhārī rahimahullāh from Abū Hurayrah radiyallāhu anhu in the Hadīth Qudsī, the Rasūl salallāhu alayhi wasallam said

إن الله قال من عادى لي ولياً فقد آذنته بالحرب، وما تقرب إلي عبدي بشيء أحب إلي مما افترضت عليه، وما يزال عبدي يتقرب إلي بالنوافل حتى أحبه، فإذا أحببته كنت سمعه الذي يسمع به، وبصره الذي يبصر به، ويده التي يبطش بها، ورجله التي يمشي بها، وإن سألني لأعطينه، ولئن استعاذني لأعيذنه

“Allah said, ‘I will declare war against him who shows hostility to a pious worshipper of Mine. And the most beloved things with which My slave comes nearer to Me, is what I have made obligatory upon him; and My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil (praying or doing extra deeds besides what is obligatory) till I love him, so I become his sense of hearing with which he hears, and his sense of sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he grips, and his leg with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks My protection (Refuge), I will protect him; (i.e. give him My Refuge)”

Two, the Obligatory Acts of Ibādah should be the most beloving to the Believer as they are the most beloving to Allāh. This is because they are the Deeds that Allāh preferred over the Superegatory ones

Three, whatever Superegatory ‘Ibādah puts the Obligatory Ibādah in jeopardy are to be avoided

It is mentioned in the Musannif of ‘Abdurrazzāq and in the Muwattā of Mālik rahimahullāh that Umar radiyallāhu ‘anhu rebuked Sulayman bn Abī Hathmah when he missed Salātu As-Sub’h because of Qiyāmullayl he observed in the previous night

In fact, the Injunctions of the Sharīah have been made in such a way that the Farā’id are safeguarded first. Can’t you see that in the Hadīth of Abū Barzata Al-Aslamī radiyallāhu ‘anhu that was recorded by Imām Al-Bukhārī rahimahullāh, he mentioned about the Rasūl salallāhu alayhi wasallam that

كان يكره النوم قبل العشاء والحديث بعدها

“He used to detest sleeping before ‘Ishā and engaging in discussions after it”

This is because sleeping before ‘Ishā will lead to missing it and engaging in discussions after it will lead to missing Salātu As-Sub’h. This is why Ibn ‘Āshir mentioned here that the Obligatory Acts of Ibādah are the Capital while the Superegatory ‘Ibādah are the Profit. No Merchant goes after the Profit at the expense of the Capital

Four, Allāh does not reward the Nawāfil (Superegatory) until the Farā’id (Obligatory) have been carried out

Abū Bakr Radiyallāhu ‘anhu is recorded by Ibn Abī Shaybah to have said

إن الله لا يقبل النافلة حتى تؤدي الفريضة.

“Indeed Allāh does not accept the Nāfilah until the Farīdah has been carried out”

Though some of the Ulamā considered it’s Isnād to be weak, the meaning is sound

And what it means is that on the Day of Qiyāmah , the first Deeds to be evaluated are the Obligatory Deeds and until this evaluation is complete, the Nawāfil will remain untouched. And Allāh knows best

Fifth, one must strive to attain Allāh’s Pleasure with the Nawāfil after the Farā’id. And Allāh knows best

May Allāh make Seeking His Pleasure beloving and easy for us all

And grant us Tawfīq and Sadād, Āmīn

Bārakallāhu Fīkum

We shall stop here

Jazakumullāhu Khayran

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

Assalāmu Alaykum Warahmatullāh Wabarakātuh



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